Mesothelioma The Silent Killer That You Should Have to Know and Prevent


Mesothelioma Cancer Ilustration/narasiinspirasi.com

Hi guys, did you ever hear about Mesothelioma? Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs (known as the mesothelium). The most common area affected is the lining of the lungs and chest wall (Sardar et al., 2012)

Robinson (2012) write that, less commonly the lining of the abdomen and rarely the sac surrounding the heart, or the sac surrounding the testis may be affected. 

According Panou et al. (2015) signs and symptoms of mesothelioma may include shortness of breath due to fluid around the lung, a swollen abdomen, chest wall pain, cough, feeling tired, and weight loss. These symptoms typically come on slowly.

Kondola et.al (2016) write that more than 80% of mesothelioma cases are caused by exposure to asbestos, the greater the exposure the greater the risk. As of 2013, about 125 million people worldwide have been exposed to asbestos at work.

Asbestos Fiber/narasiinspirasi.com

Gulati, M. and Redlich, CA (2015) write that, high rates of disease occur in people who mine asbestos, produce products from asbestos, work with asbestos products, live with asbestos workers, or work in buildings containing asbestos. Asbestos exposure and the onset of cancer are generally separated by about 40 years. Washing the clothing of someone who worked with asbestos also increases the risk.
The connection between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma was discovered in the 1970s. In the United States, asbestos manufacture stopped in 2002. Asbestos exposure thus shifted from workers in asbestos textile mills, friction product manufacturing, cement pipe fabrication, and insulation manufacture and installation to maintenance workers in asbestos-containing buildings (CDC, 2011) 

Asbestos Roof Cracking/narasiinspirasi.com


Other risk factors include genetics and infection with the simian virus 40. The diagnosis may be suspected based on chest X-ray and CT scan findings, and is confirmed by either examining fluid produced by the cancer or by a tissue biopsy of the cancer (Kondola et al., 2012) 

Mesothelioma can be prevented in most cases by preventing exposure to asbestos. The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health maintains a recommended exposure limit of 0.1 asbestos fiber per cubic centimeter. 
Prevention centers around reducing exposure to asbestos. 

Whittemore (2006) treatment often includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. A procedure known as pleurodesis, which involves using substances such as talc to scar together the pleura, may be used to prevent more fluid from building up around the lungs. Chemotherapy often includes the medications cisplatin and pemetrexed. 


The percentage of people that survive five years following diagnosis is on average 8% in the United States. In 2015, about 60,800 people had mesothelioma, and 32,000 died from the disease. According GBD (2015) rates of mesothelioma vary in different areas of the world. Rates are higher in Australia, the United Kingdom, and lower in Japan. 

It occurs in about 3,000 people per year in the United States. It occurs more often in males than females. Rates of disease have increased since the 1950s. Diagnosis typically occurs after the age of 65 and most deaths occur around 70 years old. The disease was rare before the commercial use of asbestos. 

Okay guys, thank you for visiting, hope these article help you enough to fullfill your desire of knowledge. Keep healthy,  keep happy and God bless you all. Don't forget to coming back. Thanks. 



Reference

[1] "Malignant Mesothelioma—Patient Version". NCI. January 1980. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.

2] Kondola, S; Manners, D; Nowak, AK (12 February 2016). "Malignant pleural mesothelioma: an update on diagnosis and treatment options". Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease. 10 (3): 275–88. doi:10.1177/1753465816628800. PMC 5933604. PMID 26873306.

[3] Robinson, BM (November 2012). "Malignant pleural mesothelioma: an epidemiological perspective". Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery. 1 (4): 491–6. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2225-319X.2012.11.04. PMC 3741803. PMID 23977542

[4] Whittemore, Alice S. (2006). Cancer epidemiology and prevention (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 669. ISBN 9780199747979.

[5] "Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment–Patient Version (PDQ®)". NCI. September 4, 2015. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.

[6] "Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence and U.S. Death Rates and 5-Year Relative Survival (Percent) By Primary Cancer Site, Sex and Time Period" (PDF). NCI. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2016

[7] GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.

[8] GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.

[9] "Malignant Mesothelioma—Patient Version". NCI. January 1980. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016

10] Sardar, MR; Kuntz, C; Patel, T; Saeed, W; Gnall, E; Imaizumi, S; Lande, L (2012). "Primary pericardial mesothelioma unique case and literature review". Texas Heart Institute Journal / From the Texas Heart Institute of St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital. 39 (2): 261–4. PMC 3384041. PMID 22740748.

[11] Panou, V; Vyberg, M; Weinreich, UM; Meristoudis, C; Falkmer, UG; Røe, OD (June 2015). "The established and future biomarkers of malignant pleural mesothelioma". Cancer Treatment Reviews. 41 (6): 486–95. doi:10.1016/j.ctrv.2015.05.001. PMID 25979846.

[12] Gulati, M; Redlich, CA (March 2015). "Asbestosis and environmental causes of usual interstitial pneumonia". Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 21 (2): 193–200. doi:10.1097/MCP.0000000000000144. PMC 4472384. PMID 25621562.

[13] "What are the key statistics about malignant mesothelioma?". American Cancer Society. 2016-02-17. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.

[14] "CDC - NIOSH Publications and Products - Current Intelligence Bulletin 62: Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Meneral Particles: State of the Science and Roadmap for Research". www.cdc.gov. 2011. doi:10.26616/NIOSHPUB2011159. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-08-25.






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